The name of Cappadocia was derived from Katpatuka which means the land of beautiful wild horses as the horses had a great significance in the armies and transportation around 2.000 BCE. The Assyrians chose Cappadocia as the center of their trade in 2.000 BCE. Around the 1.800 BCE Hittites settled down in Cappadocia and ruled until the 1.200 BCE.
Hittites have an important place in the world history as they made the first written treaty called Kadesh in the world history. Upon the arrival of the Hittites, thousands of cave dwellings were made in Cappadocia region by carving out into the volcanic tuff. Phrygians took over the power in the region and they made 'Gordion' their capital city which is located 94 kilometers outside of the current capital city 'Ankara'.
The Persian Empire conquered the whole Anatolia in the 6th century BCE and they ruled for 214 years until the arrival of Alexander the Great. Being raised as a Greek, Alexander the Great conquered the whole Anatolia and continued all the way to India at his very young age. On the way back from India he died at the age of 33. After his death five of his commanders shared the big empire and ruled until the 2 century BCE when the Roman Empire took over the power in Anatolia.
The Roman Empire ruled in Anatolia until 395 AD when Cappadocia fell under the sovereignty of Eastern Roman Empire called Byzantine today. Byzantines carved out the volcanic tuff to make hundreds of churches and decorated the walls with the paintings and frescoes mainly between the 8th and 12th century AD.
The Byzantines controlled the cappadocia region until the 11th century AD until the Turks arrived to the region after a long migration. The Turks defeated the Byzantines in 1071 and entered Anatolia. They founded a country in Anatolia under the name of the Seljuks. After the fall of the Seljuk Turk Empire there was the tribal period for the Turks until the ottomans became an Empire. With the fall of Constantinople, Byzantine Empire period ended and Ottomans became an Empire. Ottomans ruled until 1923 when Ataturk set up the new democratic and secular Turkish Republic and ended the monarchy of the Ottomans.