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History of Mediterranean

The Hitites, who are believed to have come to Antalya from the Caucasus and Mesopotamia, exercised sovereignty over Antalya until 1400 B.C. The tribes which came from Trakya during the 8th and 7th centuries B.C. ended the Hitite Civilization, and the city states of Pamphylia, Lycia and Cicilia were set up. While the origins of the people of the region were not exactly known, it is believed they were composed of several various groups from Anatolian tribes and a Trakya tribe called Phrygians. In the 9th and 8th centuries B.C. two waves immigrated to Anatolia from Greece resulting in many cities being established. Today about 100 of these can be found within the boundaries of Antalya. From the 7th century to the year 546 B.C. Antalya was under the sovereignty of the Lydians, when it was replaced by the Persians. The Macedonian commander Alexander the Great finished this sovereignty in 336, when he conquered all the cities of the region with the exception of one or two places like Termessos. When Alexander died in 323 B.C., a war started between his five generals and continued until 188 B.C. At that time the Seleucid King Antiochus the 3rd was defeated by the King of Bergama and signed the Apamea peace treaty. The King of Pergamon Attalos the II (159-138 B.C.) rebuilt the existing city and the one we know today as Antalya came into being. Starting from that time on it has been known successively as Attaleis, Adalia, Adalya and finally Antalya. In 43 A.D. Claudius created a kingdom uniting Pamphylia and Lycia. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. Antalya lived its most wealthy period. During the 2nd century A.D., Christianity started to spread in the region. While under the sovereignty of the Byzantium Empire and up to the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. Antalya is known to have experienced another phase of development. In these centuries the city overflowed beyond the city walls. In the 7th century A.D. the influence of Moslem Arabs started to be felt in the region. The region came under Moslem sovereignty in the year 1085. While in 1103 Antalya was captured by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Komnenos, it again fell under the sovereignty of the Turks shortly thereafter. This change of hands took place six times. The Ottomans took over the power in the region and ruled over there until 1923 when Turkish Republic was set up by the Great leader of Ataturk.